5G in North America

The research in North America is in general different than that in Europe and tends to be more academia‐ and industry‐based. Unlike in Europe, there is no public funding coordinating research efforts in the United States or Canada. Of course, in the United States, the research funding at universities comes from public sectors such as the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). However, the research at universities tends to be more based on individual interests. In terms of 5G, universities and private industries partner together to examine some of the potential technologies. For example, the Polytechnic Institute of New York University (NYU‐Poly) and Samsung have partnered together to study and develop mmWave solutions for 5G.

1-Academy Research

NYU‐Poly: The 5G project at NYU‐Poly (conducted by Professor Ted Rappaport) aims to develop a smarter and far less expensive wireless infrastructure by means of smaller and lighter antennas with directional beamforming operating at less crowded mmWave spec- trum [31].

Carleton University: The 5G project at Carleton University (lead by Professor Halim Yanikomeroglu) is conducted by Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation (2012–2017). The industrial partners are Huawei Canada, Huawei China, Apple US, Telus, Blackberry (RIM), Samsung Korea, Nortel and Communications Research Centre Canada.

2-Company R&D

Qualcomm: While Qualcomm is not publicly saying much about 5G, it is conducting a con- siderable amount of research on ways to enhance cellular systems to address the 1000x capac- ity challenge. Qualcomm has been actively working on direct device‐to‐device (D2D) discovery and communications modes, called ProSe (Proximity Services), which have been proposed to 3GPP [32]. Qualcomm has proposed operating LTE in the unlicensed band [33], adopting the ASA/LSA spectrum sharing model [13], and using HetNet to address the 1000x challenge [5].

Intel: After leading a successful charge to bring 60 GHz to wireless LANs, Intel is driving research to exploit mmWave wireless in next‐generation cellular systems. Working on a tech- nology demonstration of 60 GHz as a backhaul link for the small‐cell BSs, Intel is researching 28 GHz and 39 GHz as access links to mobile devices, targeting a throughput of 1 Gbps or more at distances of at least 200 metres [34].

Agilent: Agilent Technologies has recently signed a memorandum of understanding with China Mobile Communications Research Institute (CMRI), the research division of China Mobile, to support development of the 5G system by providing test and measurement solutions for next‐generation wireless communication systems [35].

Broadcom: Broadcom has promoted 5G WiFi (IEEE 802.11ac + hotspot 2.0), which can have data rates up to 3.6 Gbps and complement LTE and the Gigabit Ethernet. Its new features provide enhanced range, coverage and network efficiency due to its Multi‐User MIMO (MU‐ MIMO) and beamforming technologies

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